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  3. Global Climate Change – Environmental Biology
  4. Human activities are impacting the climate system.

Albedo is also affected by aerosols. Aerosols are small particles or liquid droplets in the atmosphere that can absorb or reflect sunlight. Unlike greenhouse gases GHGs , the climate effects of aerosols vary depending on what they are made of and where they are emitted. Those aerosols that reflect sunlight, such as particles from volcanic eruptions or sulfur emissions from burning coal, have a cooling effect.

Those that absorb sunlight, such as black carbon a part of soot , have a warming effect. Natural changes in albedo, like the melting of sea ice or increases in cloud cover, have contributed to climate change in the past, often acting as feedbacks to other processes. Volcanoes have played a noticeable role in climate. Volcanic particles that reach the upper atmosphere can reflect enough sunlight back to space to cool the surface of the planet by a few tenths of a degree for several years.

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Volcanic particles from a single eruption do not produce long-term change because they remain in the atmosphere for a much shorter time than GHGs. Processes such as deforestation, reforestation, desertification, and urbanization often contribute to changes in climate in the places they occur. These effects may be significant regionally, but are smaller when averaged over the entire globe. It is charged with the task of evaluating and synthesizing the scientific evidence surrounding global climate change.

The IPCC uses this information to evaluate current impacts and future risks, in addition to providing policymakers with assessments. These assessments are released about once every every six years. The most recent report, the 5th Assessment, was released in Hundreds of leading scientists from around the world are chosen to author these reports. Over the history of the IPCC, these scientists have reviewed thousands of peer-reviewed, publicly available studies. The scientific consensus is clear: global climate change is real and humans are very likely the cause for this change.

Many independent scientific organizations have released similar statements, both in the United States and abroad. Critics of climate change, driven by ideology instead of evidence, try to suggest to the public that there is no scientific consensus on global climate change. Such an assertion is patently false. Greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere will continue to increase unless the billions of tons of anthropogenic emissions each year decrease substantially. Increased concentrations are expected to:. The magnitude and rate of future climate change will primarily depend on the following factors:.

Many greenhouse gases stay in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

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As a result, even if emissions stopped increasing, atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations would continue to remain elevated for hundreds of years. This is because the oceans, which store heat, take many decades to fully respond to higher greenhouse gas concentrations. Climate models project the following key temperature-related changes:.

Patterns of precipitation and storm events, including both rain and snowfall are likely to change. However, some of these changes are less certain than the changes associated with temperature. Projections show that future precipitation and storm changes will vary by season and region. Some regions may have less precipitation, some may have more precipitation, and some may have little or no change.

Global Climate Change – Environmental Biology

The amount of rain falling in heavy precipitation events is likely to increase in most regions, while storm tracks are projected to shift towards the poles. Climate models project the following precipitation and storm changes:. Global average annual precipitation through the end of the century is expected to increase, although changes in the amount and intensity of precipitation will vary by region.

The intensity of precipitation events will likely increase on average. This will be particularly pronounced in tropical and high-latitude regions, which are also expected to experience overall increases in precipitation. The strength of the winds associated with tropical storms is likely to increase. The amount of precipitation falling in tropical storms is also likely to increase. Annual average precipitation is projected to increase in some areas and decrease in others.

Arctic sea ice is already declining drastically. The area of snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere has decreased since Permafrost temperature has increased over the last century, making it more susceptible to thawing.

Human activities are impacting the climate system.

Over the next century, it is expected that sea ice will continue to decline, glaciers will continue to shrink, snow cover will continue to decrease, and permafrost will continue to thaw. The coastal sections of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets are expected to continue to melt or slide into the ocean.

Glaciers are expected to continue to decrease in size. The rate of melting is expected to continue to increase, which will contribute to sea level rise. Retrieved 25 July Climate change and health in Bangladesh: a baseline cross-sectional survey. Global Health Action, 9 , Archived from the original PDF on 10 April Oxfam GB. Global Humanitarian Forum. Retrieved 9 August Cambridge University Press , Cambridge, U. Archived from the original on 16 March Retrieved 20 May PDF version with page numbers.

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  4. Climate Change: Biological and Human Aspects?

McMichael; R. Woodruff; S. Hales World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 22 March Archived from the original PDF on 29 April Topics in Cognitive Science. Epstein In Field, C. Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Bebber; Mark A.

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How does climate change affect biodiversity?

Bibcode : PNAS.. Bhattacharya; C. Sharma; R. Dhiman; A. Mitra Current Science. July Archived from the original PDF on 10 December Retrieved 24 January Patz; D. Campbell-Lendrum; T. Holloway; J. Foley Bibcode : Natur. Impact of regional climate change on human health.

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